By 2050 it is expected that worlds population will exceed 9 billion. Thus the demand for food, water and energy will increase rapidly. We need to find more sustainable and environmentally friendly ways to meet this demand without increasing the strain on natural resources. The problem this technology promising future is on food step of FEW (food-energy-water) nexus.
Nanotechnology, which is basically ultra-small partials promises evaluation of precision agriculture in which farmers can control their usage of water, fertilizer and other inputs, thus reduce their waste which leads more sustainable agriculture.
For example, scientists right now researching on nanofertilizer which can be applied to plants by spraying onto their leaves. Studies suggests that such fertilizing method is especially beneficial for environment as fertilizer doesn’t come in contact with soil. On the other hand using typical fertilizer by spreading on field or mixing with irrigation water results excess nitrogen and phosphorus in soil which later can form chemical bonds with other elements and become unavailable for plants to be emitted by their roots. Eventually rain washes the nitrogen and phosphorus into rivers where it can cause pollution problems.
Use nanofertilizer instead of traditional one. You will be using much more less while getting the same or even more benefit without causing waste.