Airplanes use a lot of fuel – according to Boeing’s website: “A plane like a Boeing 747 (AKA Jumbo, with about 400 passengers capacity) uses approximately 1 gallon of fuel (about 4 liters) every second. Over the course of a 10-hour flight, it might burn 36,000 gallons (150,000 liters). It “burns approximately 5 gallons of fuel per mile (12 liters per kilometer).” Demand for traditional fuel is unsustainable long term (non-reusable and pollutant).
Solar Impulse 2 – Zero Fuel Airplane
Solar power (clean technology) used to fly airplanes
“Real airborne technology lab with virtually endless endurance, capable of crossing oceans and continents by remaining in the air for several days and nights in a row.”
Zero fuel airplane
12 years of feasibility study, concept, design and construction
1 prototype (Solar Impulse 1, registered as HB-SIA)
1 final airplane: (Solar Impulse 2, registered as HB-SIB)
Challenge: “fly through 5 consecutive days and nights without using any fuel, so as to cross oceans from one continent to the next.”
Previous record: 76 hours non-stop flight
Results: New record July 3rd: 120 hours (5 days1)– from Nagoya to Kalaeloa (outside Honolulu)
“A sun-powered airplane has landed in Hawaii after a five-day journey from Japan that smashed the previous record of 76 hours for the longest duration nonstop solo flight.”
The Solar Impulse project stakeholders:
50 engineers and technicians
80 technological partners
More than 100 advisers and suppliers
Airplane customers (travelers)
National and International Aviation agencies
Aviation industry employees (pilots/crew)
New technology still being tested – would need to have confirmation that technology is safe and reliable before massive implementation
Once proven to be reliable and safe, stakeholders would need to adopt use of new techonology
Subsidizing could decrease costs involved in adopting clean energy
Massive manufacturing could also help to lower costs
Marketing to educate customers on new techonology in order to ensure adoption/usage
Massive implementation of solar energy fueled airplanes on domestic/international flights
Problem:Wasted time in traffic – commuters are spending more time stuck in traffic. According to TOMTOM, commuters spent “an average 66 more hours stuck in traffic” in 2014 than in 2013.
Technology:Autonomous Intersection Management (AIM): “a new intersection control protocol that exploits autonomous vehicles’ extraordinary capabilities of control, sensing, and communication to make traffic management at intersections much more efficient than traditional control mechanisms such as traffic signals and stop signs. This video illustrates the principle behind this new traffic control protocol and demonstrates its potential using Marvin, the autonomous vehicle developed at the University of Texas at Austin.”
Change of mind – The vision: “When I show people that video, I tell people to not envision themselves with their foot hovering over the brake or with their white knuckles on the steering wheel, but rather they’re in the back seat with the windows dark, doing a crossword puzzle or reading the newspaper, talking to family or whatever,” he says. “Once the driving is not a human task and people grow to trust the software controllers, people will also get used to the idea of cars going through the intersections.”
Autonomous Cars: In order to work, roads would need to have mostly autonomous cars.
Need autonomous cars to respect the same intersection control protocols designed for people.
New multi agent intersection control scheme – designed for autonomous vehicles
Utilize the intersection more than traffic lights and stop sign
The aim reservation protocol: potential to reduce congestion and fuel usage
Reduce the need for a lot of acceleration and deceleration – hence, reduction of harmful emissions
Implementation of dedicated short range communication (DSRC): it allows autonomous cars to communicate with the servers at the intersection – Intersection manager.
Intersection manager in each car is autonomous agent in a multi-agent system
Technical challenge: to design a communication protocol between the agents ensuring cars can get through intersection quicklycalcul and guarantees no collisions (as long as there are no mechanical failures and the cars follow the protocol).
Calculates the car proposed trajectory – guarantees safe passageway based on reservations from each car to the intersection manager.
This project isn’t finalized, hence, we cannot implement it. However, it would be a good idea to implement a pilot program on a small town. Once glitches are fixed and technology proven to be successful, a roll out to a larger scale would be the next step.
Technology: A roof coating that absorbs less sunlight, and that makes roof colder than air even in high summer temperatures – discovered by researchers at theUniversity of Technology Sydney.
Researchers claim that the new surface “stayed 11 degrees or more colder than an existing state-of-the-art white roof nearby because it absorbs only 3 per cent of incident sunlight while simultaneously strongly radiating heat at infrared wavelengths that are not absorbed by the atmosphere,”
The advantages of a cool roof: improved energy efficiency, for more comfortable interiors.
Potential overall advantage: “If enough roofs in a precinct are kept cool then the local climate can also be beneficially influenced.”
Availability: Material used currently available commercially – may be suited to be used on basic roofing.
Regulatory Bodies/Government: Good to have a legislation that would push for the implementation of standardized special/white coat roofs on all new buildings. For existing structures, it would be good to have a regulation that would push existing buildings to comply with new requirements and make changes within a specified time frame.
Architects and Construction Companies: would require these stakeholders to implement this special coated material on new projects/new constructions.
Building Owners/Managers/Home Proprietors: would require these stakeholders to adopt special coated material on existing roofs.
Inform stakeholders of new technology (media outlets and direct mail) – showcasing overall benefit.
Provide product availability information (shopping locations and cost info)
Inform suppliers of upcoming demand (try to negotiate lower price)
Commission lobbying people to push for legislation implementation
Have regulatory legislation implemented
Follow up with stakeholders to ensure implementation is being done successfully