Vehicle-To-Grid

1. Problem: Unidirectional Grid-To-Vehicle Charging   

Fossil fuels from internal combustion engine vehicles as well as electricity generation from coal and natural gas emit greenhouse gases that cause global warming. To decarbonize transportation and electricity, renewable energy sources are needed. Since the sun and wind are not always present, energy must be used immediately or stored. Upgrading residential and commercial buildings with battery storage is expensive and time-consuming. The batteries inside electric vehicles (EVs) provide an opportunity for power without resorting to fossil fuel sources. However, traditional grid-to-vehicle (G2V) charging stations are unidirectional. 


2. Solution: Bidirectional Vehicle-To-Grid Charging

Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology provides bidirectional charging for plug-in EVs, battery EVs, plug-in hybrids, and hydrogen fuel cell EVs. V2G provides drivers demand response services with the ability to send electricity into an EV battery as well as sell this energy back to the grid. EV batteries are the most cost-efficient energy storage solution since no new hardware investment is needed. With broad deployment, V2G could improve grid stability and reduce stress to meet peak demand from renewable sources. This will ultimately reduce carbon emissions on the journey to net-zero. Key features include:

— V2G EV charging equipment enables the flexible two way flow of electricity. 
— EV drivers select charging or selling electricity to the grid with a mobile application. 
— Drivers set minimum charge levels, plus view charging updates and history. 
— The charge management system enables and monitors V2G charging features. 
— Drivers save money via credits to reduce the total cost of ownership in participating markets.
— Using EVs for grid storage may impact battery life based on a finite number of charges.

Vehicle-to-everything (V2X) expands use cases to include vehicle-to-home (V2H), vehicle-to-building (V2B) and vehicle-to-grid (V2G). The V2X ecosystem at scale can reduce the need for new power plants by tapping into EV batteries as distributed energy sources.


3. Stakeholders

The stakeholders in the V2G ecosystem include: 

— Charging Station Hardware Manufacturers: Dcbel and Coritech Services manufacture and sell residential fast chargers with V2G features.
— Charging Software Integrators: Virta provides V2G charging integration services for businesses. The mobile app allows an EV battery to remain 70-90% charged. 
— Car Manufacturers: Nissan is the only major manufacturer making V2G compatible cars with the Leaf and e-NV200. Other manufacturers are conducting V2G research and development. 
— Consumers: Drivers must buy EVs with V2G charging capabilities and enable these features. 
— Real Estate: Public and private site owners must approve V2G charging deployment. 
— Utilities: EDF is a Britain utility company that provides V2G charging energy bill savings. Other utility companies globally must develop and implement V2G programs.
— Policymakers: V2G incentives must be developed to spur adoption by market participants. 


4. Implementation

Significant market development is required before V2G can be deployed at scale to meet peak energy demand. Key challenges for V2G include:

1. The adoption of V2G standards by the majority of car manufacturers for future car models.
2. Utility network upgrade costs and standards for widespread bidirectional energy distribution. 
3. Policies that incentivize V2G public private partnerships. 

For car and utility companies that are currently V2G ready, the implementation steps include: 

1. Residential or business customers confirm V2G site feasibility with the utility company. 
2. Customers complete any utility grid interconnection requirements. 
3. Once approved, customers purchase and install a V2G ready EV charging station.
4. Customers signup for a V2G digital service accessed by mobile app and dashboard. 
5. Customers receive credit for energy sold back to the grid. 

Sources:

— Virta, Vehilce-To-Grid: Everything You Need To Know: https://www.virta.global/vehicle-to-grid-v2g
— Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) Explained: What It Is And How It Works: https://www.ovoenergy.com/guides/electric-cars/vehicle-to-grid-technology.html
— Dcbel: https://www.dcbel.energy
— Coritech Services: https://coritech.com/ev-chargers
— Nuvve: https://nuvve.com
— Kaluza: https://www.kaluza.com
— Nissan: https://www.nissan-global.com/EN/ZEROEMISSION/APPROACH/COMPREHENSIVE/ECOSYSTEM/
— EDF: https://www.edfenergy.com

Electric Vehicle Wireless Charging

1. Problem: Electronic Vehicle Wired Charging   

The lack of public charging options creates range anxiety that prevents internal combustion engine car drivers from buying an electric car. Electric vehicle charging with a cable generates friction when outdoors in cold or wet weather. Although the J1772 electric vehicle charging standard is gaining widespread adoption, driver must still make sure each charging station works with their car. Public charging stations increase street furniture in communities. Traditional public charging stations deployment can create trip hazards for pedestrians. 

2. Solution: Electronic Vehicle Wireless Charging

Wireless Electric Vehicle Charging Systems (WEVCS) reduce friction for drivers by preventing the need to plug in. Wireless charging also reduces street clutter and the hazard of tripping over cables. Once a driver parks above a charging pad, the car starts charging via resonant magnetic induction. Automakers and suppliers have agreed on a wireless power transfer (WPT) standard to charge electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles. SAE International develops and promotes standards for the aerospace, commercial vehicle and automotive industries. In November 2020, the SAE J2954 inductive charging standard was accepted by car manufacturers. Key features include:

— Wireless signals sent between the car and charging system to initiate and stop charging.
— A charging pad that is about one square meter and receiving pad integrated under the car. 
— Enabling increased interoperability between hardware and software across manufacturers.
— Achieving 94% efficiency compared to wired connections ranging from 3.3 to 20 kilowatts.
— The potential to enable autonomous cars to charge themselves without human interaction.

Wireless Charging Companies:

— Witricity provides 3.6kW to 11kW wireless charging from in-ground placements in asphalt and cement with foreign object detection, live object detection, and position detection.
— Plugless Power provides 3.3kW and 7.2kW wireless EV charging stations. Purchase of the charger includes hardware and installation to upgrade an EV for wireless charging.
— Wave provides fast wireless EV charging for buses with deployments up to 250kW.  

Dynamic WEVCS is a potential future technology to charge electric vehicles while driving by embedding roads, such as highway sections, with charging transmitters.

3. Stakeholders

The stakeholders in the wireless charging ecosystem include: 

Wireless Charging Providers: Witricity, Plugless Power, Wave and other providers. 
Car Manufacturers: BMW, Honda, GM, and Nissan are all Witricity development partners.
Consumers: Drivers must buy future cars with EV wireless charging capabilities. 
Real Estate Owners: Public and private site owners must approve wireless charging sites. 
Utility Companies: Energy distributors must support standards and interconnection to the grid. 
Policymakers: Politicians must generate policy that allows wireless charging deployment. 

4. Implementation

It  remains questionable if wireless charging will be implemented and deployed at scale. Cost and deployment hurdles must be solved in order for wireless charging to gain traction. Wireless charging requires: 

1. Refinement of wireless charging systems to provide auto manufacturers confidence to deploy this technology. 
2. Wireless charging pilots with public and private partners to get support for widespread deployment. 
3. Assuming barriers are overcome, each site will require approval from public and private real estate owners. 
4. Once a site is confirmed, ground pads will require utility companies to confirm interconnection requirements. 
5. Upon gaining utility approval, ground pads will require permitting, leasing, provisioning, and construction. 
6. The wireless charging system can then be installed. 
7. Drivers can then gain the benefits of wireless charging. 
8. The wireless charging system will then require operating and maintenance by the provider. 


Sources:

— Wireless EV charging gets a boost: https://www.greencarreports.com/news/1130055_wireless-ev-charging-gets-a-boost-single-standard-will-harmonize-systems-up-to-11-kw
— Wireless Charging Can Boost Acceptance of Electric Vehicles https://passive-components.eu/wireless-charging-can-boost-acceptance-of-electric-vehicles/
— Witricity https://witricity.com
— Plugless Power: https://www.pluglesspower.com
— Wave Bus Charging: https://waveipt.com

Micromobility Charging

1. Problem: Dockless Micromobility Charging  

Micromobility companies have traditionally relied on dockless parking and charging. This results in cluttered sidewalks with increased risk of fire from charging multiple e-scooters and e-bikes at residential locations. Micromobility service providers face challenges charging and maintaining fleets. Companies rely on gig economy workers to scour cities and charge depleted e-vehicles at home overnight. As companies scale, they pile e-scooters and e-bikes in internal combustion engine vehicles to recharge in warehouses. This limits environmental benefits, availability, and potential revenue. This charging ecosystem is expensive so new charging solutions are needed. 


2. Solution: Universal Micromobility Charging Stations

Companies are working to solve these challenges by developing universal micromobility charging stations. GetCharged, Inc. (Charge) provides micromobility stations for riders and service operators to charge e-scooters and e-bikes. Charge is dedicated to building the largest network of electric charging, storage, and service stations for e-vehicles. These stations remove clutter on city sidewalks and reduce hazards for pedestrians. The first Charge docking station was launched in August, 2019 on Broadway between 24th and 25th street. Key features:

— Charge’s docking charging stations are compatible with most e-scooter and e-bike brands. 
— Universal charging stations connected to the grid can fully charge a battery in 3 to 6 hours.
— In addition to charging, docks provide adaptable micromobility vehicle parking and locking.
— Docking charging stations are installed in private garages, lots, and spaces.
— Charge is deploying over 400 locations in NYC and 6,000 across the US and Europe.

Other Micromobility Charging Station Providers: 

— PBSC organizes, secures, and charges e-bikes and e-scooters while reducing operating costs.
— Swiftmile has a solar-powered charging station with digital display for transit details and ads.
— Kuhmute is a modular and universal charging station for micromobility providers and cities. 
— Duckt combines a dockless and docked approach with a unique locking system. 

Universal Battery Swapping 

Universal battery swapping is an alternative approach for micromobility charging. This solution reduces waiting time since batteries can be swapped in a few minutes. The battery swap can be done anywhere with battery swap cabinets taking up less space than public charging. However, universal batteries face challenges for e-mobility company adoption. When battery technology is upgraded, the charging network requires upgrading so this solution prohibitively expensive.  

3. Stakeholders

The stakeholders in the micromobility ecosystem include: 

Charging Service Providers: Companies including Charge, PBSC, Swiftmile, Kuhmute, and Duckt provide innovation micromobility charging solutions. 
Micromobility Service Providers: Companies including Lime, Bolt, Bird, Revel provide e-scooters in various markets that require charging.   
Consumers: City residents become members to micromobility service providers to efficiently travel around neighborhoods. 
Real Estate Owners: Private parking owners and the Department of Transportation in cities become stakeholders to provide sites for micromobility charging stations. 
Utilities: ConEdison in New York and PG&E in California are examples of utilities that must manage the deployment of micromobility charging stations.
Policymakers: City politicians are shaping micromobility charging policy and regulation.


4. Implementation

The micromobility charging service providers take the following key steps to deploy:

1. Meet with public or private real estate owner to gain approval for charging station project.
2. Once interest is confirmed, meet with utility to confirm project feasibility at the location. 
3. Gain approval for charging station installation construction, trenching, and permitting. 
4. Install the micromobility charging station at the desired location. 
5. Operate and maintain the charging station once up and running. 

Sources:

— Charge Unveils First-Of-Its-Kind Micromobility Charging, Docking And Service Station In New York City:https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/charge-unveils-first-of-its-kind-micromobility-charging-docking-and-service-station-in-new-york-city-300895817.html
— Charge: https://www.charge.us/    
— Charging stations vs battery swaps: What’s better for micromobility? https://thenextweb.com/news/charging-stations-battery-swaps-whats-better-micromobility-syndication

Open Charge Point Protocol

1. Problem: Electric Vehicle Charging Fragmentation
Sustainability Category: Energy Management, Mobility

29% of total greenhouse gas emissions in the United States are from transportation with internal combustion engine vehicles being the highest source. With only about 1% of cars on the road being electric today, range anxiety from the lack of widespread charging infrastructure is a primary adoption barrier.

As the electric vehicle (EV) charging technology sector develops, closed charging infrastructure networks generate friction for hardware manufacturers, software developers, and drivers. Electric vehicle infrastructure developed by private network operators create silos that limit value for stakeholders. Industry fragmentation forces EV drivers to join multiple networks with varying accounts to access public chargers. The lack of standards leads to duplicative development effort to integrate charging stations and backend networks with energy systems. This limits providers from offering additional features across all providers.


2. Solution: Open Charge Point Protocol (OCPP)


The Open Charge Point Protocol (OCPP) is a charging infrastructure standard for EV charging station, Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE), and back end software communication. OCPP reduces friction and fragmentation by increasing flexibility across the electric vehicle infrastructure industry for organizations and drivers.

— OCPP is an open-source, free standard published by Open Charge Alliance (OCA) that enables interoperability between charging infrastructure hardware and software networks.
— This neutral, open standard enables charging station vendors to access, share, and collect data with backend charge management operators so the widest amount of products can work together.
— On the charging station, OCPP enables charging station discovery, reservations, session authorization, billing information collection, and real-time charging data.
— On the backend software, OCPP enables real-time status of charging stations, remote charging session control, firmware management, and error notification.
— OCPP 1.6 is a JSON protocol that was released in 2015 and is the most widely used version in market today. OCPP 2.0 was launched in 2018 and provides major data encryption security updates. OCPP 2.0.1 is the latest version and was launched on March 31, 2020.

3. Stakeholders

OCPP is primarily utilized by charging station product, design, and engineering teams. Key organizations that are stakeholders in the OCPP ecosystem include:

— Open Charge Alliance (OCA):An international consortium of private and public EV infrastructure organizations that leads OCPP development, adoption, and certification.
— Network Management System Providers: GreenLots and ChargeLab are two EV charging network software providers that manage charging stations across manufacturers via OCPP.
— Charging Station Manufacturers: Blink and EVBox are two EV charging station manufacturers that use to connect devices to OCPP supported backend systems.
— EV Drivers:Mobile applications across providers initiate and manage charging sessions.
— EV OEMs: Manufacturers integrate OCPP on the in-car display to manage charging sessions.


4. Implementation

Once a hardware or software company decides to use OCPP, the following steps are taken:
1. The product management team will integrate OCPP in the roadmap and define requirements.
2. The design team will incorporate the OCPP functionality into hardware or software features.
3. Once approved, the engineering team will develop, test, and deploy OCPP features.


Sources


— Open vs. Closed Charging Stations: Advantages and Disadvantages. GreenLots: https://greenlots.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/Open-Standards-White-Paper.pdf
— What is OCPP? ChargeLab: https://www.chargelab.co/industry-advocacy/ocpp   
— About Us. Open Charge Alliance: https://www.openchargealliance.org/about-us/about/
— Sources of Greenhouse Gases. EPA: https://www.epa.gov/ghgemissions/sources-greenhouse-gas-emissions
— Electric Vehicles Setting A Course For 2030. Deloitte Insights:  https://www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/insights/us/articles/22869-electric-vehicles/DI_Electric-Vehicles.pdf

World’s First Reusable Tote Bag

Braceletote

1. Sustainability Issue: According to the world counts, we use 5 trillion plastic bags per year! Which means 160,000 a second! And over 700 a year for every single person on the planet. NYC produces10 billion plastic bags per year.
2. Sustainability Solution: Amer Jandali former DJ tackling committed to creating low-waste products starting with the world’s first wearable tote bag.
-The product impacts climate by challenging consumer behaviors
-Easy to care
– The symbol for progressive changes in policy on plastic bag taxes
-Although market currently offers bags that are stuffable, foldable, and packable, there are zero wearables.
#wastemanagement #sustainability #pollution #BT2443
3. Key Stakeholders
-City municipals
-Private Sectors
-Citizens
-Visitors
4.Steps Deploying Solution:
– Build a community and infrastructure and educate public
–  legalize plastic bag usage
B
Other sources:

Elevated bike path concept to fight congestion

Sustainability problem: Traffic congestion and pollution

Traffic congestion and the amount of emissions that result from it are an increasingly severe problem in today’s growing megacities.

Technology solution: 

  • BMV proposes a network of bike lanes above street level, called E3 Way for elevated, electric and efficient, to help megacities fight traffic congestion and reduce emissions by making cycling safer and more convenient.
  • The network would be exclusive for electric bikes and two-wheelers, and it would have a speed limit of 15.5 mph. It would also have ramps and sluice systems to handle merging.
  • Cameras would be used to monitor the flow of traffic with the help of AI, and most of the lanes would have a roof to facilitate its use during rainy days.
  • The concept is said to have a modular design, making it suitable to use in any megacity and relatively economical to build.

Organizational stakeholders

  • Local city government
  • Department of transportation
  • Cycling advocates
  • Environmental department
  • Bicycle ride-sharing companies

Implementation steps

  1. Flexibilize the concept to allow for non-electric bikes to use the network.
  2. Partner with a bike-intense city to generate a localized project that solves a specific problem
  3. Implement the solution and expand the concept to other cities

____________________________________________________________________________

Comment: Smart Parking Meters

“The article mentions that the Park Smarter App also facilitates the process of paying for parking with the help of single sign-on and integration with services like Visa Checkout.”

Truck Platooning

platooning

Problem: Trucks and other large commercial vehicles often travel in isolation. Their size and slow acceleration requires substantial fuel resources and they often have negative impacts to traffic flows on busy roadways.

Solution: Truck platooning pairs two trucks, one which is operated conventionally and the other partially operated. This linking strategy enables trucks to take up less space on streets than if they were to operate independently. It also saves fuel for the follower.

  • The city of Columbus is hosting a trial of two-truck platoons for a busy roadway that leads to a major logistics hub.
  • Partially operated trucks follow traditionally operated ones. Software by Peloton Technology pairs the two vehicles so that speed, controlled braking, and controlled acceleration are automatically in sync.
  • The lead truck cuts through the air and wind to reduce drag for the follower, thus increasing its fuel efficiency.
  • This trial is a precursor to a future where self-driving trucks will follow traditionally operated vehicles.

Stakeholders:

  • truck and freight operators
  • municipal transportation agencies
  • commuters

Next 3 Steps:

  • record and measure results from platoon trial
  • share results and findings with transportation agencies nationwide
  • establish federal standards for truck platooning

Sources:

https://www.bizjournals.com/columbus/news/2016/07/20/driverless-18-wheelers-coming-to-columbus-as-truck.html

https://peloton-tech.com/how-it-works/

Comment:

https://makeasmartcity.com/2017/11/16/drb2171-2/comment-page-1/#comment-1452

Roads Of The Future

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1) Sustainability Problem: Roadway lighting serves as a vital safety feature for busy streets and highways where visibility is essential. Roadway lights can also indicate the difference between a pedestrian and a car zone. However, light pollution and meeting today’s demanding energy reduction ambitions is getting challenging. Forecasts indicate that 5 billion people (60% of the world’s population) will live in cities by 2050 and, according to the International Energy Agency, the overall demand for lighting will be 80% higher by 2030 than in 2005. Moreover, sea level rise and flooding is another major problem for future of the street lighting and everything with LEDs and cables would have died there in the sea.

2) Technological Solutions: Studio Roosegaarde is creating magic through light: Smart Highway, Van Gogh Bike Path, and  ICOON AFSLUITDIJK comprise the creation of a subtle layer of light and interaction on an iconic 32-kilometer-long dike that protects the Netherlands against flooding. Studio Roosegaarde presents three designs of light and communication, called GATES OF LIGHT, WINDVOGEL, and GLOWING NATURE.

A Smart Highway

-A smart highway that replaces energy-wasting streetlamps with specially designed “Glowing Lines.”

-Proven the feasibility of N329- Road of the Future, perhaps Roosegaarde can begin developing a plan for the dynamic paint, electricity-generating windmills, and motion-sensing lights

Van Gogh Bike Path

-The path is illuminated by thousands of twinkling stones that feature glow-in-the-dark technology and solar-powered LED lights.

-The entire route is 335 kilometers (208 miles) long

VanGoghRoosegaarde6

Icoon Afluitdijk 

-For the GATES OF LIGHT entrance at both sides of the dyke, they applied retro-reflective prisms to the buildings, which light up by the headlamps of passing cars.

-After sunset Drive through GATES OF LIGHT after sunset and bring the floodgates to life through the headlamps of your car, as an alternative to polluting street lights!”

– Each WINDVOGEL kite generates 20 to 100 kW, supplying energy for 200 households.

-GLOWING NATURE shows the beauty of nature  Studio Roosegaarde works with live algae, one of the oldest microorganisms in the world. They created the world’s largest luminous algae site!”

-Moreover, all of them are art installations of the 21st century

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Beckett Mufson, “Roads Of The Future Are Here… And They Glow In The Dark”, Creators, Apr 14, 2014

Veerle Devos, “Daan Roosegaarde Does MAgic With Light,” November 2017

CNN Staff, “Bike path inspired by Van Gogh’s ‘Starry Night’ opens in Netherlands,”  November 14, 2014

#smartcity #futureroad #lightpollution #smartart #smarthighway #lights #energyefficiency #flooding #safety #health #sustainability #smartcity  #BT2443

3) Key stakeholders and their role in the implementation:

–City, state, and government municipals support and include their plan for the new highway and innovation of the road, dams and bike paths encourage private sectors and local artists partner with innovators-Financial Institutions-Financing future road projects

-Educate youth through art and technology on the road safety and light pollution and smart energy consumption

4) Steps Deploying Technology:

-Build prosperous environment for the utility companies to use technology and art and financial institutions finance utility companies

-Within Public Private People’s Partnership educate each stakeholder how to avoid light pollution that could influence our health and at the same time save energy and money

-Educate youth road safety and art through future roads.

I recommend cities across the globe duplicate projects. Moreover, music festivals could use innovations to decrease their GHG emission and light pollution. 

Other Sources:

http://www.darksky.org/light-pollution/

http://blogs.worldbank.org/energy/led-street-lighting-unburdening-our-cities

Click to access roadlighting_int-10_lr.pdf

https://studioroosegaarde.net/project/gates-of-light

 

1) Sustainability Problem: Vehicle Congestion and Air Pollution
For city residents, traffic is a huge environmental problem as well as a nuisance.  Too many drivers on the road cause delays, decrease productivity, and increase air pollution.  According to the EPA, “vehicles produce roughly one-half of pollutants like VOCs, nitrogen oxide and particulate matter” and 75% of CO2 emissions are from automobiles.

2) Sustainability TechnologyUPS Cargo Bikes
Vehicles emissions are a growing concern for policy-makers who are beginning to recognize the emissions and climate change impacts of freight transportation. They are starting to look at the role of technology can play in delivering goods more reliable and in a more sustainable fashion.  They are also looking to reduce congestion, improve road safety, and decrease CO2 emissions that lead to health risks and climate change. Large retailers are partnering with cities to improve freight transport and UPS has proven to be one such leader with the inception of their Cargo-bikes.  Since their release in 2012 in Hamburg, Germany, UPS has had a lot of success with their Cargo bikes and they are now rolling them out (literally) in the Northeast, starting with Pittsburg in the United States and Toronto in Canada.  Although the bikes hold much less capacity than their vans, they are looking to improve the technology to allow for an increase in capacity.  The rider must power the bike to pull the heavy cargo which as has been the biggest challenge.  However, the bikes now come with e-assist.  Through either a battery pack or solar panels on the roof of the cargo bin, the bike can have enough supply to help move the wheels for up to 18 hours.  Plus, pedaling the bikes helps to recharge the batteries while the driver is on the go!

3) Technology Stakeholders

  • UPS
  • Public Officials
  • City Agencies (Department of Transportation)
  • City Residents
  • Small Businesses

4) Implementation

  1. Locate small to medium-sized city where congestion is such a problem
  2. Using the Toronto model, and ones that have been successful in Europe, introduce 5 UPS cargo bikes throughout the city
  3. Test this out and if successful, add 5 more bikes to the fleet
  4. Once cargo bikes are successful, launch campaign to provide awareness on the issue of congestion to city residents and how it is being combatted by this technology
  5. Repeat model in other cities

5) Comment on Other Blog Post: https://makeasmartcity.com/2017/11/16/newater-is-tackling-island-nations-primary-challenge/#comments

Sources:

The Most Efficient Transportation System in the World: Seoul

171018110323-seoul-urban-planners-traffic-00001704-1024x576Problem:

  • Rapid population increase in Seoul, South Korea, as a result of post-war migration and an economic boom in the 1950’s.
  • There are 50 times more cars on Seoul’s roads now than in the 1970’s.

Solution: Smart Transportation Management

  • In 2004, the city began to overhaul it’s public transportation and road system through the use of data collection and consequently, through monitoring public transport and traffic in real-time.
  • The Seoul Traffic Vision 2030 was presented in 2013, including public transport, roads, side-walks, city railway systems as a systemic recommendation for improvement.

“By 2030, the city of Seoul will have evolved into a city with a highly convenient transport system, where people will not need to rely on their cars.”  – Seoul Traffic Vision 2030

  • Smart ticket systems and cameras monitor subway congestions, road-based sensors monitor traffic flows, and an in-built GPS system monitors taxi movement in the city, which feed into a central system used to post updates on digital roadside billboards and traffic reporting platforms, such as online.
  • Through this, buses, cars and trains can be maneuvered in the most efficient way.
  • The city has also focussed on pedestrianization, getting more people out of cars and onto walkways. An example of this is the Seoullo 7017 walkway, which makes use of an abandoned highway overpass as a new pedestrian route.

Article: How Seoul is using technology to avoid “traffic hell” 

Seoul Traffic Vision 2030: Website

143123783516_20150511.JPG

Seoullo 7017

Stakeholders: 

  • All commuters
  • Municipal government
  • City planners
  • Business owners (large employers of the commuter base population)

Steps to Implementation: 

  1. Sensor installation
  2. Overall system analyses (data collection)
  3. System re-design
  4. Infrastructure improvements
  5. Further sensor installation in new systems
  6. Training of transport officials
  7. Public awareness of alternative routes and optimal travel methods, and availability of platforms to independently track these
  8. Adoption of system commuter recommendations
  9. Measurement and monitoring
  10. Additional installations as technology improves

Comment on Plastic Bottle Concrete: 

Another article on this topic (Link) says that the plastic needs to be irradiated with gamma rays in oder to change the crystalline structure (ie. more cross linkages in the lattice lead to stronger concrete when mixed with plastic). It would be interesting to analyze how much this irradiation process would cost on an industrial scale when incorporated into cement production.