Open Charge Point Protocol

1. Problem: Electric Vehicle Charging Fragmentation
Sustainability Category: Energy Management, Mobility

29% of total greenhouse gas emissions in the United States are from transportation with internal combustion engine vehicles being the highest source. With only about 1% of cars on the road being electric today, range anxiety from the lack of widespread charging infrastructure is a primary adoption barrier.

As the electric vehicle (EV) charging technology sector develops, closed charging infrastructure networks generate friction for hardware manufacturers, software developers, and drivers. Electric vehicle infrastructure developed by private network operators create silos that limit value for stakeholders. Industry fragmentation forces EV drivers to join multiple networks with varying accounts to access public chargers. The lack of standards leads to duplicative development effort to integrate charging stations and backend networks with energy systems. This limits providers from offering additional features across all providers.


2. Solution: Open Charge Point Protocol (OCPP)


The Open Charge Point Protocol (OCPP) is a charging infrastructure standard for EV charging station, Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE), and back end software communication. OCPP reduces friction and fragmentation by increasing flexibility across the electric vehicle infrastructure industry for organizations and drivers.

— OCPP is an open-source, free standard published by Open Charge Alliance (OCA) that enables interoperability between charging infrastructure hardware and software networks.
— This neutral, open standard enables charging station vendors to access, share, and collect data with backend charge management operators so the widest amount of products can work together.
— On the charging station, OCPP enables charging station discovery, reservations, session authorization, billing information collection, and real-time charging data.
— On the backend software, OCPP enables real-time status of charging stations, remote charging session control, firmware management, and error notification.
— OCPP 1.6 is a JSON protocol that was released in 2015 and is the most widely used version in market today. OCPP 2.0 was launched in 2018 and provides major data encryption security updates. OCPP 2.0.1 is the latest version and was launched on March 31, 2020.

3. Stakeholders

OCPP is primarily utilized by charging station product, design, and engineering teams. Key organizations that are stakeholders in the OCPP ecosystem include:

— Open Charge Alliance (OCA):An international consortium of private and public EV infrastructure organizations that leads OCPP development, adoption, and certification.
— Network Management System Providers: GreenLots and ChargeLab are two EV charging network software providers that manage charging stations across manufacturers via OCPP.
— Charging Station Manufacturers: Blink and EVBox are two EV charging station manufacturers that use to connect devices to OCPP supported backend systems.
— EV Drivers:Mobile applications across providers initiate and manage charging sessions.
— EV OEMs: Manufacturers integrate OCPP on the in-car display to manage charging sessions.


4. Implementation

Once a hardware or software company decides to use OCPP, the following steps are taken:
1. The product management team will integrate OCPP in the roadmap and define requirements.
2. The design team will incorporate the OCPP functionality into hardware or software features.
3. Once approved, the engineering team will develop, test, and deploy OCPP features.


Sources


— Open vs. Closed Charging Stations: Advantages and Disadvantages. GreenLots: https://greenlots.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/Open-Standards-White-Paper.pdf
— What is OCPP? ChargeLab: https://www.chargelab.co/industry-advocacy/ocpp   
— About Us. Open Charge Alliance: https://www.openchargealliance.org/about-us/about/
— Sources of Greenhouse Gases. EPA: https://www.epa.gov/ghgemissions/sources-greenhouse-gas-emissions
— Electric Vehicles Setting A Course For 2030. Deloitte Insights:  https://www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/insights/us/articles/22869-electric-vehicles/DI_Electric-Vehicles.pdf

World’s First Reusable Tote Bag

Braceletote

1. Sustainability Issue: According to the world counts, we use 5 trillion plastic bags per year! Which means 160,000 a second! And over 700 a year for every single person on the planet. NYC produces10 billion plastic bags per year.
2. Sustainability Solution: Amer Jandali former DJ tackling committed to creating low-waste products starting with the world’s first wearable tote bag.
-The product impacts climate by challenging consumer behaviors
-Easy to care
– The symbol for progressive changes in policy on plastic bag taxes
-Although market currently offers bags that are stuffable, foldable, and packable, there are zero wearables.
#wastemanagement #sustainability #pollution #BT2443
3. Key Stakeholders
-City municipals
-Private Sectors
-Citizens
-Visitors
4.Steps Deploying Solution:
– Build a community and infrastructure and educate public
–  legalize plastic bag usage
B
Other sources:

Elevated bike path concept to fight congestion

Sustainability problem: Traffic congestion and pollution

Traffic congestion and the amount of emissions that result from it are an increasingly severe problem in today’s growing megacities.

Technology solution: 

  • BMV proposes a network of bike lanes above street level, called E3 Way for elevated, electric and efficient, to help megacities fight traffic congestion and reduce emissions by making cycling safer and more convenient.
  • The network would be exclusive for electric bikes and two-wheelers, and it would have a speed limit of 15.5 mph. It would also have ramps and sluice systems to handle merging.
  • Cameras would be used to monitor the flow of traffic with the help of AI, and most of the lanes would have a roof to facilitate its use during rainy days.
  • The concept is said to have a modular design, making it suitable to use in any megacity and relatively economical to build.

Organizational stakeholders

  • Local city government
  • Department of transportation
  • Cycling advocates
  • Environmental department
  • Bicycle ride-sharing companies

Implementation steps

  1. Flexibilize the concept to allow for non-electric bikes to use the network.
  2. Partner with a bike-intense city to generate a localized project that solves a specific problem
  3. Implement the solution and expand the concept to other cities

____________________________________________________________________________

Comment: Smart Parking Meters

“The article mentions that the Park Smarter App also facilitates the process of paying for parking with the help of single sign-on and integration with services like Visa Checkout.”

Truck Platooning

platooning

Problem: Trucks and other large commercial vehicles often travel in isolation. Their size and slow acceleration requires substantial fuel resources and they often have negative impacts to traffic flows on busy roadways.

Solution: Truck platooning pairs two trucks, one which is operated conventionally and the other partially operated. This linking strategy enables trucks to take up less space on streets than if they were to operate independently. It also saves fuel for the follower.

  • The city of Columbus is hosting a trial of two-truck platoons for a busy roadway that leads to a major logistics hub.
  • Partially operated trucks follow traditionally operated ones. Software by Peloton Technology pairs the two vehicles so that speed, controlled braking, and controlled acceleration are automatically in sync.
  • The lead truck cuts through the air and wind to reduce drag for the follower, thus increasing its fuel efficiency.
  • This trial is a precursor to a future where self-driving trucks will follow traditionally operated vehicles.

Stakeholders:

  • truck and freight operators
  • municipal transportation agencies
  • commuters

Next 3 Steps:

  • record and measure results from platoon trial
  • share results and findings with transportation agencies nationwide
  • establish federal standards for truck platooning

Sources:

https://www.bizjournals.com/columbus/news/2016/07/20/driverless-18-wheelers-coming-to-columbus-as-truck.html

https://peloton-tech.com/how-it-works/

Comment:

https://makeasmartcity.com/2017/11/16/drb2171-2/comment-page-1/#comment-1452

Roads Of The Future

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1) Sustainability Problem: Roadway lighting serves as a vital safety feature for busy streets and highways where visibility is essential. Roadway lights can also indicate the difference between a pedestrian and a car zone. However, light pollution and meeting today’s demanding energy reduction ambitions is getting challenging. Forecasts indicate that 5 billion people (60% of the world’s population) will live in cities by 2050 and, according to the International Energy Agency, the overall demand for lighting will be 80% higher by 2030 than in 2005. Moreover, sea level rise and flooding is another major problem for future of the street lighting and everything with LEDs and cables would have died there in the sea.

2) Technological Solutions: Studio Roosegaarde is creating magic through light: Smart Highway, Van Gogh Bike Path, and  ICOON AFSLUITDIJK comprise the creation of a subtle layer of light and interaction on an iconic 32-kilometer-long dike that protects the Netherlands against flooding. Studio Roosegaarde presents three designs of light and communication, called GATES OF LIGHT, WINDVOGEL, and GLOWING NATURE.

A Smart Highway

-A smart highway that replaces energy-wasting streetlamps with specially designed “Glowing Lines.”

-Proven the feasibility of N329- Road of the Future, perhaps Roosegaarde can begin developing a plan for the dynamic paint, electricity-generating windmills, and motion-sensing lights

Van Gogh Bike Path

-The path is illuminated by thousands of twinkling stones that feature glow-in-the-dark technology and solar-powered LED lights.

-The entire route is 335 kilometers (208 miles) long

VanGoghRoosegaarde6

Icoon Afluitdijk 

-For the GATES OF LIGHT entrance at both sides of the dyke, they applied retro-reflective prisms to the buildings, which light up by the headlamps of passing cars.

-After sunset Drive through GATES OF LIGHT after sunset and bring the floodgates to life through the headlamps of your car, as an alternative to polluting street lights!”

– Each WINDVOGEL kite generates 20 to 100 kW, supplying energy for 200 households.

-GLOWING NATURE shows the beauty of nature  Studio Roosegaarde works with live algae, one of the oldest microorganisms in the world. They created the world’s largest luminous algae site!”

-Moreover, all of them are art installations of the 21st century

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Beckett Mufson, “Roads Of The Future Are Here… And They Glow In The Dark”, Creators, Apr 14, 2014

Veerle Devos, “Daan Roosegaarde Does MAgic With Light,” November 2017

CNN Staff, “Bike path inspired by Van Gogh’s ‘Starry Night’ opens in Netherlands,”  November 14, 2014

#smartcity #futureroad #lightpollution #smartart #smarthighway #lights #energyefficiency #flooding #safety #health #sustainability #smartcity  #BT2443

3) Key stakeholders and their role in the implementation:

–City, state, and government municipals support and include their plan for the new highway and innovation of the road, dams and bike paths encourage private sectors and local artists partner with innovators-Financial Institutions-Financing future road projects

-Educate youth through art and technology on the road safety and light pollution and smart energy consumption

4) Steps Deploying Technology:

-Build prosperous environment for the utility companies to use technology and art and financial institutions finance utility companies

-Within Public Private People’s Partnership educate each stakeholder how to avoid light pollution that could influence our health and at the same time save energy and money

-Educate youth road safety and art through future roads.

I recommend cities across the globe duplicate projects. Moreover, music festivals could use innovations to decrease their GHG emission and light pollution. 

Other Sources:

http://www.darksky.org/light-pollution/

http://blogs.worldbank.org/energy/led-street-lighting-unburdening-our-cities

Click to access roadlighting_int-10_lr.pdf

https://studioroosegaarde.net/project/gates-of-light

 

1) Sustainability Problem: Vehicle Congestion and Air Pollution
For city residents, traffic is a huge environmental problem as well as a nuisance.  Too many drivers on the road cause delays, decrease productivity, and increase air pollution.  According to the EPA, “vehicles produce roughly one-half of pollutants like VOCs, nitrogen oxide and particulate matter” and 75% of CO2 emissions are from automobiles.

2) Sustainability TechnologyUPS Cargo Bikes
Vehicles emissions are a growing concern for policy-makers who are beginning to recognize the emissions and climate change impacts of freight transportation. They are starting to look at the role of technology can play in delivering goods more reliable and in a more sustainable fashion.  They are also looking to reduce congestion, improve road safety, and decrease CO2 emissions that lead to health risks and climate change. Large retailers are partnering with cities to improve freight transport and UPS has proven to be one such leader with the inception of their Cargo-bikes.  Since their release in 2012 in Hamburg, Germany, UPS has had a lot of success with their Cargo bikes and they are now rolling them out (literally) in the Northeast, starting with Pittsburg in the United States and Toronto in Canada.  Although the bikes hold much less capacity than their vans, they are looking to improve the technology to allow for an increase in capacity.  The rider must power the bike to pull the heavy cargo which as has been the biggest challenge.  However, the bikes now come with e-assist.  Through either a battery pack or solar panels on the roof of the cargo bin, the bike can have enough supply to help move the wheels for up to 18 hours.  Plus, pedaling the bikes helps to recharge the batteries while the driver is on the go!

3) Technology Stakeholders

  • UPS
  • Public Officials
  • City Agencies (Department of Transportation)
  • City Residents
  • Small Businesses

4) Implementation

  1. Locate small to medium-sized city where congestion is such a problem
  2. Using the Toronto model, and ones that have been successful in Europe, introduce 5 UPS cargo bikes throughout the city
  3. Test this out and if successful, add 5 more bikes to the fleet
  4. Once cargo bikes are successful, launch campaign to provide awareness on the issue of congestion to city residents and how it is being combatted by this technology
  5. Repeat model in other cities

5) Comment on Other Blog Post: https://makeasmartcity.com/2017/11/16/newater-is-tackling-island-nations-primary-challenge/#comments

Sources:

The Most Efficient Transportation System in the World: Seoul

171018110323-seoul-urban-planners-traffic-00001704-1024x576Problem:

  • Rapid population increase in Seoul, South Korea, as a result of post-war migration and an economic boom in the 1950’s.
  • There are 50 times more cars on Seoul’s roads now than in the 1970’s.

Solution: Smart Transportation Management

  • In 2004, the city began to overhaul it’s public transportation and road system through the use of data collection and consequently, through monitoring public transport and traffic in real-time.
  • The Seoul Traffic Vision 2030 was presented in 2013, including public transport, roads, side-walks, city railway systems as a systemic recommendation for improvement.

“By 2030, the city of Seoul will have evolved into a city with a highly convenient transport system, where people will not need to rely on their cars.”  – Seoul Traffic Vision 2030

  • Smart ticket systems and cameras monitor subway congestions, road-based sensors monitor traffic flows, and an in-built GPS system monitors taxi movement in the city, which feed into a central system used to post updates on digital roadside billboards and traffic reporting platforms, such as online.
  • Through this, buses, cars and trains can be maneuvered in the most efficient way.
  • The city has also focussed on pedestrianization, getting more people out of cars and onto walkways. An example of this is the Seoullo 7017 walkway, which makes use of an abandoned highway overpass as a new pedestrian route.

Article: How Seoul is using technology to avoid “traffic hell” 

Seoul Traffic Vision 2030: Website

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Seoullo 7017

Stakeholders: 

  • All commuters
  • Municipal government
  • City planners
  • Business owners (large employers of the commuter base population)

Steps to Implementation: 

  1. Sensor installation
  2. Overall system analyses (data collection)
  3. System re-design
  4. Infrastructure improvements
  5. Further sensor installation in new systems
  6. Training of transport officials
  7. Public awareness of alternative routes and optimal travel methods, and availability of platforms to independently track these
  8. Adoption of system commuter recommendations
  9. Measurement and monitoring
  10. Additional installations as technology improves

Comment on Plastic Bottle Concrete: 

Another article on this topic (Link) says that the plastic needs to be irradiated with gamma rays in oder to change the crystalline structure (ie. more cross linkages in the lattice lead to stronger concrete when mixed with plastic). It would be interesting to analyze how much this irradiation process would cost on an industrial scale when incorporated into cement production.

 

 

Adaptive Traffic Control

Mercer_SCOOT_Map-1024x291.jpg

Problem: Conventional traffic control systems have timed signals and are unable to make adjustments based on real-time traffic conditions. This leads to predictable traffic backups and congestion during peak commuting hours, as well as increased vehicle emissions from stalled vehicles.

Solution: Adaptive traffic controls that will adjust signal timing based on real time data on traffic conditions to help vehicles move more efficiently in high-traffic corridors.

  • Seattle’s Department of Transportation adopted a smart adaptive traffic control system for a high-traffic corridor in the growing South Lake Union neighborhood.
  • Sensors detect vehicles in every lane of every intersection along the route to determine traffic conditions.
  • Algorithms process the data to predict traffic flows and adjusts the amount of time available to each movement through intersections to inform signal timing.
  • The system is able to predict and adapt to congestion that from rush hour, sports events, concerts, and other special events.

Stakeholders:

  • transportation departments
  • surface transit (bus, streetcar)
  • commuters

First 3 Steps:

  • measure improvements in traffic flow from adaptive traffic controls
  • identify additional high-traffic corridors for next phase
  • implement adaptive control systems in all high traffic corridors

Sources:

http://sdotblog.seattle.gov/2017/04/24/city-of-seattle-introduces-mercer-adaptive-signal-system-to-keep-traffic-moving/

Comment on “Ocean Cleanup”

The anchor and ballast concept is key in slowing down the system to capture the floating plastic that moves faster. In addition, the natural forces on the water helps position the system where the highest concentration of trash is to make it even more efficient.

Big Data for Better Health of the Elderly

Problem: By 2050, there will be 370 million people in China over the age of 65, with an increased life expectancy and a resulting increasing burden on existing infrastructure. Many elderly people live alone or with others who are less capable of assisting them with their increasing medical needs, and access to such services is burdensome and logistically challenging to those with mobility hindrances.

Solution: mHealth – the use of communication technology to deliver medical attention and information.

Article: Can China find a solution for the world’s aging population? 

  • Elderly people with restricted mobility can go through the process of “visiting a doctor” without leaving their homes.
  • Numerous companies are providing platforms for this, including Chunuyisheng.com, Ali Health, iCarbonx and the Ningbo Cloud Hospital.
  • Wearable technology is becoming incorporated rapidly to provide real-time data inputs, which has value beyond patient care in a sample group as large as China, where data on this scale can be used for genomic medical studies, and population-wide health management.
  • Data mining combined with machine learning can bring new levels of insight to topics such as disease, aging, and treatment adoption, as well as provide tailored healthcare solutions to individuals based on a variety of lifestyle indicators.

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Stakeholders: 

  • This is an unquantified investment opportunity for a number of stakeholders, including medical care providers, pharmaceutical companies, online medical retailers, medical transport services.
  • Department of Heath
  • Private Healthcare Companies
  • Patients (specifically the elderly)

Step to Deployment: 

  • With significant scale, the adoption of these smart health systems can be incentivized or even mandated throughout elderly healthcare facilities, to begin to develop the necessary database and sample data.
  • Government adoption of the technology and subsidization, through an elderly support program, may help to reach elderly citizens who are more financially restricted.
  • Training for both users of the technology and well as the sales force who will be distributing it.

 

Energy Generating Walkway: No Footstep Wasted

Screen Shot 2017-11-09 at 12.59.54 PM

Sustainability Problem: Energy

Sustainability Technology:

Pavegen technology was founded in 2009 in order to build sustainable environments. It aims to connect people with clean energy and also to bring awareness about changing behaviors.

It is a multifunctional custom flooring system. The tiles are sensitive to the weight of the people and as people step on them it causes ‘electromagnetic induction generators to vertically displace, which results in a rotatory motion that generates off-grid electricity’.

This technology turns kinetic energy into renewable electricity. As people walk on the path, they light their way (one footstep is enough to light an LED lightbulb for 20 seconds).

Stakeholders:

City planners

Citizens

Brands and agencies

Engineers

Deployment of the technology:

1. Continue working on scaling up the technology

2. Initiate integrating the technology worldwide to cities where streets are most occupied by pedestrians

Source

MK3263

Comment on “3D printing help tackle poverty and plastic waste”