Vehicle-To-Grid

1. Problem: Unidirectional Grid-To-Vehicle Charging   

Fossil fuels from internal combustion engine vehicles as well as electricity generation from coal and natural gas emit greenhouse gases that cause global warming. To decarbonize transportation and electricity, renewable energy sources are needed. Since the sun and wind are not always present, energy must be used immediately or stored. Upgrading residential and commercial buildings with battery storage is expensive and time-consuming. The batteries inside electric vehicles (EVs) provide an opportunity for power without resorting to fossil fuel sources. However, traditional grid-to-vehicle (G2V) charging stations are unidirectional. 


2. Solution: Bidirectional Vehicle-To-Grid Charging

Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology provides bidirectional charging for plug-in EVs, battery EVs, plug-in hybrids, and hydrogen fuel cell EVs. V2G provides drivers demand response services with the ability to send electricity into an EV battery as well as sell this energy back to the grid. EV batteries are the most cost-efficient energy storage solution since no new hardware investment is needed. With broad deployment, V2G could improve grid stability and reduce stress to meet peak demand from renewable sources. This will ultimately reduce carbon emissions on the journey to net-zero. Key features include:

— V2G EV charging equipment enables the flexible two way flow of electricity. 
— EV drivers select charging or selling electricity to the grid with a mobile application. 
— Drivers set minimum charge levels, plus view charging updates and history. 
— The charge management system enables and monitors V2G charging features. 
— Drivers save money via credits to reduce the total cost of ownership in participating markets.
— Using EVs for grid storage may impact battery life based on a finite number of charges.

Vehicle-to-everything (V2X) expands use cases to include vehicle-to-home (V2H), vehicle-to-building (V2B) and vehicle-to-grid (V2G). The V2X ecosystem at scale can reduce the need for new power plants by tapping into EV batteries as distributed energy sources.


3. Stakeholders

The stakeholders in the V2G ecosystem include: 

— Charging Station Hardware Manufacturers: Dcbel and Coritech Services manufacture and sell residential fast chargers with V2G features.
— Charging Software Integrators: Virta provides V2G charging integration services for businesses. The mobile app allows an EV battery to remain 70-90% charged. 
— Car Manufacturers: Nissan is the only major manufacturer making V2G compatible cars with the Leaf and e-NV200. Other manufacturers are conducting V2G research and development. 
— Consumers: Drivers must buy EVs with V2G charging capabilities and enable these features. 
— Real Estate: Public and private site owners must approve V2G charging deployment. 
— Utilities: EDF is a Britain utility company that provides V2G charging energy bill savings. Other utility companies globally must develop and implement V2G programs.
— Policymakers: V2G incentives must be developed to spur adoption by market participants. 


4. Implementation

Significant market development is required before V2G can be deployed at scale to meet peak energy demand. Key challenges for V2G include:

1. The adoption of V2G standards by the majority of car manufacturers for future car models.
2. Utility network upgrade costs and standards for widespread bidirectional energy distribution. 
3. Policies that incentivize V2G public private partnerships. 

For car and utility companies that are currently V2G ready, the implementation steps include: 

1. Residential or business customers confirm V2G site feasibility with the utility company. 
2. Customers complete any utility grid interconnection requirements. 
3. Once approved, customers purchase and install a V2G ready EV charging station.
4. Customers signup for a V2G digital service accessed by mobile app and dashboard. 
5. Customers receive credit for energy sold back to the grid. 

Sources:

— Virta, Vehilce-To-Grid: Everything You Need To Know: https://www.virta.global/vehicle-to-grid-v2g
— Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) Explained: What It Is And How It Works: https://www.ovoenergy.com/guides/electric-cars/vehicle-to-grid-technology.html
— Dcbel: https://www.dcbel.energy
— Coritech Services: https://coritech.com/ev-chargers
— Nuvve: https://nuvve.com
— Kaluza: https://www.kaluza.com
— Nissan: https://www.nissan-global.com/EN/ZEROEMISSION/APPROACH/COMPREHENSIVE/ECOSYSTEM/
— EDF: https://www.edfenergy.com

Electric Vehicle Wireless Charging

1. Problem: Electronic Vehicle Wired Charging   

The lack of public charging options creates range anxiety that prevents internal combustion engine car drivers from buying an electric car. Electric vehicle charging with a cable generates friction when outdoors in cold or wet weather. Although the J1772 electric vehicle charging standard is gaining widespread adoption, driver must still make sure each charging station works with their car. Public charging stations increase street furniture in communities. Traditional public charging stations deployment can create trip hazards for pedestrians. 

2. Solution: Electronic Vehicle Wireless Charging

Wireless Electric Vehicle Charging Systems (WEVCS) reduce friction for drivers by preventing the need to plug in. Wireless charging also reduces street clutter and the hazard of tripping over cables. Once a driver parks above a charging pad, the car starts charging via resonant magnetic induction. Automakers and suppliers have agreed on a wireless power transfer (WPT) standard to charge electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles. SAE International develops and promotes standards for the aerospace, commercial vehicle and automotive industries. In November 2020, the SAE J2954 inductive charging standard was accepted by car manufacturers. Key features include:

— Wireless signals sent between the car and charging system to initiate and stop charging.
— A charging pad that is about one square meter and receiving pad integrated under the car. 
— Enabling increased interoperability between hardware and software across manufacturers.
— Achieving 94% efficiency compared to wired connections ranging from 3.3 to 20 kilowatts.
— The potential to enable autonomous cars to charge themselves without human interaction.

Wireless Charging Companies:

— Witricity provides 3.6kW to 11kW wireless charging from in-ground placements in asphalt and cement with foreign object detection, live object detection, and position detection.
— Plugless Power provides 3.3kW and 7.2kW wireless EV charging stations. Purchase of the charger includes hardware and installation to upgrade an EV for wireless charging.
— Wave provides fast wireless EV charging for buses with deployments up to 250kW.  

Dynamic WEVCS is a potential future technology to charge electric vehicles while driving by embedding roads, such as highway sections, with charging transmitters.

3. Stakeholders

The stakeholders in the wireless charging ecosystem include: 

Wireless Charging Providers: Witricity, Plugless Power, Wave and other providers. 
Car Manufacturers: BMW, Honda, GM, and Nissan are all Witricity development partners.
Consumers: Drivers must buy future cars with EV wireless charging capabilities. 
Real Estate Owners: Public and private site owners must approve wireless charging sites. 
Utility Companies: Energy distributors must support standards and interconnection to the grid. 
Policymakers: Politicians must generate policy that allows wireless charging deployment. 

4. Implementation

It  remains questionable if wireless charging will be implemented and deployed at scale. Cost and deployment hurdles must be solved in order for wireless charging to gain traction. Wireless charging requires: 

1. Refinement of wireless charging systems to provide auto manufacturers confidence to deploy this technology. 
2. Wireless charging pilots with public and private partners to get support for widespread deployment. 
3. Assuming barriers are overcome, each site will require approval from public and private real estate owners. 
4. Once a site is confirmed, ground pads will require utility companies to confirm interconnection requirements. 
5. Upon gaining utility approval, ground pads will require permitting, leasing, provisioning, and construction. 
6. The wireless charging system can then be installed. 
7. Drivers can then gain the benefits of wireless charging. 
8. The wireless charging system will then require operating and maintenance by the provider. 


Sources:

— Wireless EV charging gets a boost: https://www.greencarreports.com/news/1130055_wireless-ev-charging-gets-a-boost-single-standard-will-harmonize-systems-up-to-11-kw
— Wireless Charging Can Boost Acceptance of Electric Vehicles https://passive-components.eu/wireless-charging-can-boost-acceptance-of-electric-vehicles/
— Witricity https://witricity.com
— Plugless Power: https://www.pluglesspower.com
— Wave Bus Charging: https://waveipt.com

Micromobility Charging

1. Problem: Dockless Micromobility Charging  

Micromobility companies have traditionally relied on dockless parking and charging. This results in cluttered sidewalks with increased risk of fire from charging multiple e-scooters and e-bikes at residential locations. Micromobility service providers face challenges charging and maintaining fleets. Companies rely on gig economy workers to scour cities and charge depleted e-vehicles at home overnight. As companies scale, they pile e-scooters and e-bikes in internal combustion engine vehicles to recharge in warehouses. This limits environmental benefits, availability, and potential revenue. This charging ecosystem is expensive so new charging solutions are needed. 


2. Solution: Universal Micromobility Charging Stations

Companies are working to solve these challenges by developing universal micromobility charging stations. GetCharged, Inc. (Charge) provides micromobility stations for riders and service operators to charge e-scooters and e-bikes. Charge is dedicated to building the largest network of electric charging, storage, and service stations for e-vehicles. These stations remove clutter on city sidewalks and reduce hazards for pedestrians. The first Charge docking station was launched in August, 2019 on Broadway between 24th and 25th street. Key features:

— Charge’s docking charging stations are compatible with most e-scooter and e-bike brands. 
— Universal charging stations connected to the grid can fully charge a battery in 3 to 6 hours.
— In addition to charging, docks provide adaptable micromobility vehicle parking and locking.
— Docking charging stations are installed in private garages, lots, and spaces.
— Charge is deploying over 400 locations in NYC and 6,000 across the US and Europe.

Other Micromobility Charging Station Providers: 

— PBSC organizes, secures, and charges e-bikes and e-scooters while reducing operating costs.
— Swiftmile has a solar-powered charging station with digital display for transit details and ads.
— Kuhmute is a modular and universal charging station for micromobility providers and cities. 
— Duckt combines a dockless and docked approach with a unique locking system. 

Universal Battery Swapping 

Universal battery swapping is an alternative approach for micromobility charging. This solution reduces waiting time since batteries can be swapped in a few minutes. The battery swap can be done anywhere with battery swap cabinets taking up less space than public charging. However, universal batteries face challenges for e-mobility company adoption. When battery technology is upgraded, the charging network requires upgrading so this solution prohibitively expensive.  

3. Stakeholders

The stakeholders in the micromobility ecosystem include: 

Charging Service Providers: Companies including Charge, PBSC, Swiftmile, Kuhmute, and Duckt provide innovation micromobility charging solutions. 
Micromobility Service Providers: Companies including Lime, Bolt, Bird, Revel provide e-scooters in various markets that require charging.   
Consumers: City residents become members to micromobility service providers to efficiently travel around neighborhoods. 
Real Estate Owners: Private parking owners and the Department of Transportation in cities become stakeholders to provide sites for micromobility charging stations. 
Utilities: ConEdison in New York and PG&E in California are examples of utilities that must manage the deployment of micromobility charging stations.
Policymakers: City politicians are shaping micromobility charging policy and regulation.


4. Implementation

The micromobility charging service providers take the following key steps to deploy:

1. Meet with public or private real estate owner to gain approval for charging station project.
2. Once interest is confirmed, meet with utility to confirm project feasibility at the location. 
3. Gain approval for charging station installation construction, trenching, and permitting. 
4. Install the micromobility charging station at the desired location. 
5. Operate and maintain the charging station once up and running. 

Sources:

— Charge Unveils First-Of-Its-Kind Micromobility Charging, Docking And Service Station In New York City:https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/charge-unveils-first-of-its-kind-micromobility-charging-docking-and-service-station-in-new-york-city-300895817.html
— Charge: https://www.charge.us/    
— Charging stations vs battery swaps: What’s better for micromobility? https://thenextweb.com/news/charging-stations-battery-swaps-whats-better-micromobility-syndication

EVTOL: What they are, when they’ll be here, and how they’ll change how you get around

  1. EVTOL’s will have the ability to address sustainability issues in several categories. It would continue the movement to electrify many delivery services, and potentially in the future, passenger transport. In doing so, delivery services could improve temporal and fuel efficiencies. This could have implications on issues of energy, waste, and the safety and health of the public.

2.

  • AVTOL stands for Electric Vehicle Takeoff and Landing, which is an acronym that refers to the vehicle’s ability to takeoff and land without the need of a runway. It’s basically like a very large drone in most cases, although the propulsion systems can vary a bit. These types of vehicles can be more efficient than helicopters in that they have wings so they fly more like a typical aircraft, so they take less energy to keep them moving forward at faster speeds.
  • There are many companies that are working on developing and implementing this technology from aerospace engineering firms to major companies that require intense logistics that are funding some of the R&D that is taking place. There are also some municipalities that are already testing this technology (one of them we discussed in class!).
  • EVTOL’s can potentially be used in the not-so-distant future to transport passengers and cargo over relatively short distances in a manner that is much more efficient that your standard transit methods now for reasons such as environmental impacts and time spent traveling.
  • EVTOL’s are supposedly super safe! And some firms are saying that they anticipate to implement these in public applications as soon as 2024.

Article Title: EVTOL: WHAT THEY ARE, WHEN THEY’LL BE HERE, AND HOW THEY’LL CHANGE HOW YOU GET AROUND

Website Name: Inverse

Website Link: https://www.inverse.com/innovation/flying-cars-are-already-here

3. Stakeholders include:

  • Travelers/Commuters
  • Logistics Companies (UPS, FedEx, USPS, Amazon, etc.)
  • Ride-Hailing Services (Uber/Lyft/Blade, etc)
  • Aerospace Engineering Firms

4. It seems that the steps taken thus far to begin implementing technology have been the proper ones. In order to roll out a technology as transformative as this, it must go through rigorous R&D including years of testing to ensure it is safe for the Public. Second would be the regulatory hurdles to actually get these aircrafts in operation – this is going to be a substantial speed bump. It seems an entire framework would need to be built to essentially have flying cars hovering above our neighborhoods and potentially cities with high-rise buildings; seems like a lot to address. Thirdly, the infrastructure would need to be built to allow these aircrafts to operate effectively. I am not entirely sure what this would entail, but I would imagine similar to building small heliports and some sort of air traffic control center to link everything together.

Micromobility charging stations

Student: Jessica Yu (Uni: JY3076)

Sustainability Problem:

Solar Power stations and infrastructures have been increasing in many places thus bringing down the cost in many homes. However, there are still many areas where the grid does not reach the areas and it is hard to gain energy access on the go.

Summary:

In order to make energy / charging stations available, standardize and universal charging station needs to be made available, DUCKT is a company that helps create this, gives access and creates a new stream of energy towards public transportation. DUCKT can charge any micromobility vehicle including scooters regardless of model in one infrastructure solution.

  • This company helps create a infrastructure that is suitable for many vehicles in the market. For example, in Paris, they deployed new charging infrastructure that can be plugged into advertising boards or streetlights.
  • DUCKT ( https://medium.com/startup-grind/startup-q-a-duckt-6306b15e3288) says its charging docks can be plugged into advertising boards, bus stations and street lighting to provide a power source, meaning scooters for example can stay in use for longer without the need to have batteries replaced.
  • The city of Paris has begun a pilot project to install 150 dock, lock and charge points for micromobility vehicles across the “Paris Rive Gauche” (13th Arrondissement) area of the French capital. The project aims to demonstrate how universal charging infrastructure can accelerate micromobility use and it’s hoped reduce climate impact in the city.
  • Scooters are very popular in the cities, so providing sufficient infrastructure will no doubt become crucial for authorities in the capital going forward. Time will tell whether projects such as this will be rolled out more widely in Paris and other cities where scooter usage is increasing.

Stakeholders

  • Public Space Owners (Key Stakeholders): While service operators are visitors of the city, people and the local authority are the hosts, and the hosts of the city are the one who will be impacted in their daily life
  • Sharing Operators (Primary Stakeholders): Firms are spending almost 60% of their income for operations and charging. Operators can cut from their extra operation times, especially to charge during the day anytime, anywhere. DUCKT Station provide safety against vandalism both during the day and night
  • 3rd party Business (Secondary Stakeholders): Parking operators, energy suppliers, coffee chains, EV stations, Shopping centers, holiday resorts, gas stations get to become mobility service hotspots.

Deploying this technology

Work with cities local authorities and scooters operators to present this solution to implement as a standard that benefits all. Furthermore, they also can work with scooter manufacturers because they have internationally patented the plug works in how it’s designed, they can have these adapters as a spec ready into these vehicles so they will already have a infrastructure solution that is already existing in the cities.

Open Charge Point Protocol

1. Problem: Electric Vehicle Charging Fragmentation
Sustainability Category: Energy Management, Mobility

29% of total greenhouse gas emissions in the United States are from transportation with internal combustion engine vehicles being the highest source. With only about 1% of cars on the road being electric today, range anxiety from the lack of widespread charging infrastructure is a primary adoption barrier.

As the electric vehicle (EV) charging technology sector develops, closed charging infrastructure networks generate friction for hardware manufacturers, software developers, and drivers. Electric vehicle infrastructure developed by private network operators create silos that limit value for stakeholders. Industry fragmentation forces EV drivers to join multiple networks with varying accounts to access public chargers. The lack of standards leads to duplicative development effort to integrate charging stations and backend networks with energy systems. This limits providers from offering additional features across all providers.


2. Solution: Open Charge Point Protocol (OCPP)


The Open Charge Point Protocol (OCPP) is a charging infrastructure standard for EV charging station, Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE), and back end software communication. OCPP reduces friction and fragmentation by increasing flexibility across the electric vehicle infrastructure industry for organizations and drivers.

— OCPP is an open-source, free standard published by Open Charge Alliance (OCA) that enables interoperability between charging infrastructure hardware and software networks.
— This neutral, open standard enables charging station vendors to access, share, and collect data with backend charge management operators so the widest amount of products can work together.
— On the charging station, OCPP enables charging station discovery, reservations, session authorization, billing information collection, and real-time charging data.
— On the backend software, OCPP enables real-time status of charging stations, remote charging session control, firmware management, and error notification.
— OCPP 1.6 is a JSON protocol that was released in 2015 and is the most widely used version in market today. OCPP 2.0 was launched in 2018 and provides major data encryption security updates. OCPP 2.0.1 is the latest version and was launched on March 31, 2020.

3. Stakeholders

OCPP is primarily utilized by charging station product, design, and engineering teams. Key organizations that are stakeholders in the OCPP ecosystem include:

— Open Charge Alliance (OCA):An international consortium of private and public EV infrastructure organizations that leads OCPP development, adoption, and certification.
— Network Management System Providers: GreenLots and ChargeLab are two EV charging network software providers that manage charging stations across manufacturers via OCPP.
— Charging Station Manufacturers: Blink and EVBox are two EV charging station manufacturers that use to connect devices to OCPP supported backend systems.
— EV Drivers:Mobile applications across providers initiate and manage charging sessions.
— EV OEMs: Manufacturers integrate OCPP on the in-car display to manage charging sessions.


4. Implementation

Once a hardware or software company decides to use OCPP, the following steps are taken:
1. The product management team will integrate OCPP in the roadmap and define requirements.
2. The design team will incorporate the OCPP functionality into hardware or software features.
3. Once approved, the engineering team will develop, test, and deploy OCPP features.


Sources


— Open vs. Closed Charging Stations: Advantages and Disadvantages. GreenLots: https://greenlots.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/Open-Standards-White-Paper.pdf
— What is OCPP? ChargeLab: https://www.chargelab.co/industry-advocacy/ocpp   
— About Us. Open Charge Alliance: https://www.openchargealliance.org/about-us/about/
— Sources of Greenhouse Gases. EPA: https://www.epa.gov/ghgemissions/sources-greenhouse-gas-emissions
— Electric Vehicles Setting A Course For 2030. Deloitte Insights:  https://www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/insights/us/articles/22869-electric-vehicles/DI_Electric-Vehicles.pdf

Smart Urban Growth Tackles Mobility and Electricity Distribution Concurrently

Cities can get smart taking control of their electrical grid and electric vehicle (EV) charging infrastructure as a means of addressing urban growth.  Boulder, Colorado is making a run at it but few outside Germany have taken a serious move in this direction for it requires a long-term vision.  Seeking this urban planning route is not always initiated for economical reasons.  Boulder, for instance, is driven to engage as a means of increasing renewable energy sources in their electricity generation fuel mix.  Here’s the catch, this approach may not a scalable or sustainable solution for all cities  Mega cities; no way anytime soon.  Rural environments; not likely ever needed.  So, Boulder just happens to sit in the Goldilocks Zone but even with it being “just right” the increasing digitalization of the electric grid and new sources of distributed energy will make this endeavor a tenuous pursuit.

Years ago I was involved in dozens of negotiations with municipalities throughout the United States, Canada, and Mexico.  Many desired to “take control” of and then offer, as a public service, wireless Internet services for their citizens.  The complexities in equipment management and selection, maintenance, and budgeting were often solely regarded in the context of whether to make the WiFi a free or a for a fee amenity to subscribers.  Thing is, that’s not where the root challenge existed.  Even a little bit of education in these matters achieved a stakeholder stalemate for trying to figure out how to convert a privatized service into a public good without causing bias to an ongoing free market was no simple matter.  The concept of a public-private partnership was alien.

Dealing with increasing urbanization today requires a systemic stakeholder analysis and just the right sitting of pilot efforts in advance of any at-scale execution plans.  To date few cities have taken this approach but Toronto, Canada is on the way.

“...We are designing a district in Toronto’s Eastern Waterfront to tackle the challenges of urban growth…Sidewalk Toronto will combine forward-thinking urban design and new digital technology to create people-centered neighborhoods that achieve precedent-setting levels of sustainability, affordability, mobility, and economic opportunities” – Sidewalk Labs

To do as Sidewalk Labs proposes there must be an integration of technologies, policies, and financial mechanisms that allow for private and public implementation plans to surface, ones in service of many stakeholders.

  • SAMPLE TECHNOLOGIES AT PLAY
  • IMPLEMENTATION APPROACHES
    • Analyze long-tailpipe electricity generation fuel mixes
    • Promote EVs and pilots ONLY in cities that have clean fuel sources
    • Establish population growth and transport demand metrics
    • Conduct customer interviews to fit future needs
    • Create intelligent city policies to cater to DER and EV microgrids
    • Engage private-sector electric mobility companies
    • Educate citizens on mobility and clean energy options
    • Build neighborhood based pilots
    • Engage citizens via engagement workshops for updates
    • Prepared to pivot for at-scale execution
  • STAKEHOLDERS TO ENGAGE
    • City Planners & Urban Designers
    • Public Entities and Administrators
    • Private Technology Providers
    • EV Manufacturers & Infrastructure Providers
    • Load Balancing Software Solution Providers
    • Private and/or Public Electric Utilities
    • Citizens

 

JMB2408 COMMENT TO ANOTHER BLOG POST (Leaf Plates):

This is an excellent solution to consumption and in turn waste. If this was a compostable solution that can be put to use in the local houseplant or compost pile then we’re talking about a dream conversion in consumption to waste. The other thing that would be amazing is to see this scale to shipping boxes or other high consumption transport items. Awesome find, thanks for sharing.