Water Supply

Sustainability Problem: Water

Water Supply: “World Health Organization, 1.6 million people die each year from diarrhoeal diseases attributable to lack of safe drinking water as well as basic sanitation”. 

Technology Solution Nanotechnology in Filtration

  • It removes microbes, bacteria and other matters from water using composite nanoparticles.
  • Low cost water purification
  • Cost of water decreased from $1 per cubic metre to between $.80 and $.50
  • Capably of Smart Monitoring

Stakeholders

Stakeholders

  • Public
  • Irrigation companies
  • Wastewater processing companies
  • Mobile recycling facilities
  • Government

Deployment/Implementation

  • Developing countries losses 45m cubic metres are lost everyday
  • Without smart monitoring technology it hard to attracted investment for treatment plants, pumping stations because of the loss water production.
  • With smart monitoring technology, it can ensure investors that it will minimize the loss water production
  • Pressure and acoustic sensors that are connected to wirelessly to a cloud base monitoring can help companies to locate the leaks much faster to resolve the issue.

Sources

https://www.theguardian.com/sustainable-business/new-water-technologies-save-planet

Membrane Bioreactors in Beer Production and Water Waste Management

Emily Tregidgo – emt2179

1) Sustainability Problem: Water, waste, emissions, safety and health

An average brewery uses 7 to 10 gallons of water to produce 1 gallon of beer1. Water is used as both an ingredient in beer and in its production, and wastewater is produced as a result of operations. Both the water intensity of production and the wastewater associated with it pose sustainability questions and concerns.

2) Sustainability Technology: BlueCycle MBR (membrane bioreactor)

Cambrian and The Florida Brewery Partner to Reduce Costs and CO2 Emissions

  • Distributed wastewater treatment and resource recovery solutions provider Cambrian is partnering with Florida’s second oldest operational brewery, The Florida Brewery, to deploy Cambrian’s BlueCycle MBR technology. The technology is intended to replace the need for high-strength wastewater disposal systems, and to reduce CO2 output by ~254 metric tons per year. There are also anticipated cost savings associated with the technology.
  • BlueCycle MBR is an aerobic digester that removes water pollutants from the wastewater and its use facilitates water reuse compliant with Title 22 requirements (water recycling regulations). 
  • Anheuser-Busch, Dr. Pepper, and Anchor Brewing Company are among other companies that are using Cambrian’s water reuse solutions.

3) Stakeholders

  • Cambrian
  • The Florida Brewery (operational team)
  • Other beverage companies (both those that use these technologies and those that do not)
  • Regulatory bodies (to ensure compliance with Title 22 and other legislation) 

4) The First Three Steps in Deploying This Technology

  • Assess the impact of the technology at The Florida Brewery
  • Market the cost savings and sustainability benefits the technology provides to other beverage companies
  • Conduct regulatory research to ensure the product is still compliant with the requisite legislation

Sources:

1The thirsty business of beer: How breweries are confronting the industry’s water problem

Low-Tech Solution for High-Profile SDG (Water Scarcity)

CloudFisher fog-harvesters on a mountain

Peter Schott // pcs2144

(1) Sustainability Problem: Water
Per the UN, the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) remains one of the world’s most water-scare regions, with 17 countries considered below the water poverty line. Around 1.1M people lack reliable access to water and 2.7M live in regions where water scarcity exists for at least one month of the year.

(2) Water scarcity is an issue – analysts predict that water scarcity may contribute to future conflict in the region.

  • Agriculture comprises of 80% of the water usage in the MENA region; often the cultivation of crops, specifically citrus fruit in rural Morocco, has depleted the natural groundwater reserves and aquifers at a rate faster than replenishment
  • Seawater desalination and dams are the current tools used to address water scarcity in the region, however they come with several negative externalities
  • In Morocco specifically, the NGO Dar Si Hmad has partnered with German WaterFoundation to utilized their CloudFisher fog-harvesters, which use no energy, to collect up to 600L+ of drinking water per day per net*
  • The CloudFisher technology can withstand win speeds up to 120kph while catching water droplets in the air that (often) comply with WHO drinking water standards*

    Article: Can tech advances solve arid Middle East’s water scarcity problem?, Arab News

(3) Stakeholders:
Stakeholders include NGOs that provide local solutions to rural farmers and villages in the MENA region.
An example of this in Morocco is Dar Si Hmad for Development (NGO) connecting the CloudFisher fog-harvesters (local solution) to 16 villages in rural Morocco.
Additionally, Governments and Ministers are stakeholders as “water is the lifeblood of civilizations that shape economies, as said by Reem Al-Hasimy, UAW minister of state.

(4) Deployment/Adoption/Implementation:
Given that the focus of this is to drive end-user (customer) adoption, the below does not contain steps to fix the broader water scarcity problem across MENA; additionally, influencing government will delay broader adoption but is needed to create a robust market.

  • Educate communities and farmers about the importance of water, specifically the importance of protecting water supplies, to help introduce good conservation habits and available technologies
  • Pilot the CloudFisher technology in communities, collecting data around environmental conditions (weather, air temp, etc.), water collected, time spent by community to harvest, etc.; attempt to create a business case as to what the technology actually achieves (is it time saved, money saved, lives saved, etc.)
  • Explore conversations with government to discuss the importance of water scarcity in the MENA region, the success of the pilot program, the impact of international trade on water scarcity; propose a potential export tax through policy that could be used to provide solutions such as CloudFisher to farmer villages, in an effort to provide drinking water

Additional Sources:
*https://www.wasserstiftung.de/en/cloudfisher/

PipeGuard: Water pipe leak detection robot.

1) Sustainability problem: Detecting leaks in the aging water infrastructure posses financial and infrastructure problems to the city. Area: Water

  • Most city’s water distribution systems lose an average of 20 percent of their supply because of leaks.
  • These leaks not only make shortages worse but also can cause serious structural damage to buildings and roads by undermining foundations.
  • Leak detection systems currently in use are expensive and slow to operate, and don’t work well in systems that use wood, clay, or plastic pipes, which account for the majority of systems in the developing world.

2)  Technology

  • The PipeGuard is a small, rubbery robotic device that looks something like an oversized badminton birdie. The device can be inserted into the water system through any fire hydrant.
  • It then moves passively with the flow, logging its position as it goes. It detects even small variations in pressure by sensing the pull at the edges of its soft rubber skirt, which fills the diameter of of the pipe.
  • The device is then retrieved using a net through another hydrant, and its data is uploaded. No digging is required, and there is no need for any interruption of the water service. In addition to the passive device that is pushed by the water flow, the team also produced an active version that can control its motion.

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Sources:

  1. http://news.mit.edu/2017/robot-finds-leaks-water-pipes-0718

3) Stakeholders

  • City and local governments
  • Department of Water
  • Private citizens and local businesses.

4) Deployment 

  • Research cities who’s water infrastructure sustains the most loses due to leaks.
  • Bid for contracts with the Department in charge of the water infrastructure and the local governments to use the PipeGuard system in those areas
  • Research the scalability of the robot to other city systems such as gas pipelines.

JV2610  COMMENT TO ANOTHER BLOG POST (NEWater is tackling Island Nation’s Primary Challenge) https://makeasmartcity.com/2017/11/16/newater-is-tackling-island-nations-primary-challenge/#comments

“The process starts with sewage water that is filtered to extract larger particles, bacteria and viruses. Then, through reverse osmosis, membranes refine the water again, sifting out further contaminants and getting rid of any disease-causing agents. Finally, ultraviolet disinfection is used to make sure the water is truly pure and ready to use. The final product even exceeds the FAO’s safety standards.”

 UNI – jv2610

How to monitor water smartly

1: Area of sustainability category: water infrastructure

Maintaining balanced water levels is critical to avoid flooding in residential areas and conserve enough water for the dry season. And the technician has to drive back and forth between 11 lakes and make sure the levels don’t get too high.”

2: “Florida city employs Sensus tech for remote water monitoring

  • Enables proactive and preventative maintenance
  • Enables quick resolution of equipment failures
  • Decreases the need to deploy field crews
  • No additional power line infrastructure is necessary

3: Implementation

  • Identify sites for installation
  • Develop contracts with building owners
  • Install sensors
  • On-site Testing and Implementation

4: Stakeholder

  • Municipal
  • Technicians
  • City residents

source:

https://www.metering.com/news/lakeland-sensus-remote-water-monitoring/

https://sensus.com/products/sensus-smart-gateway/

Comment on “Plastic Bottle Concrete

Manufacturing concrete generates 4.5 percent of the world’s human-induced carbon emissions. So far, substituting 1.5 percent of concrete with irradiated plastic has been proved to improve the mixture’s strength significantly. It means 0.0675 percent of the world’s carbon dioxide emissions is deducted. If this technology is implemented on a global scale, the impact could be significant.

 

Nature-inspired water collection system

AquaWeb+inspirationsystem-aquaweb

  1. Sustainability Problem: In the next few decades, approximately 9 billion people will live in this planet, concentrating in urban areas. The current growth rate of food production won’t be enough to feed the mouths of everyone. Hence, a sustainable local food production solution will be in demand. Mimicking the way nature works, NexLoop created a water collection system to support urban sustainable agriculture.
  2. The AquaWeb can help urban local food producers collect, filter, store and distribute atmospheric moisture with a modular, all-in-one water sourcing and management system. Other features are as follows:
    • Harnesses freely available rain and fog
    • Distribute water using passive strategies to urban farms
    • Resilient to disturbances
    • Design and inspiration from cribellate orb weaver spider, drought-tolerant plants, and Jersey cow mushroom

Sources:

Nature-inspired water collection system wins $100,000 Ray of Hope Prize® – Biomimicry Institute

https://biomimicry.org/roh2017winner/

NexLoop | Home

http://www.nexloop.us/

  1. Stakeholders:
    • Citizens around the world
    • Urban farms
    • Agriculture industry
    • Building contractors and architects
    • Groceries and supermarkets
  2. Next steps:
    • Do a feasibility study and engage with stakeholders to improve relations
    • Reach an agreement on costs and economic outlook
    • Initiate pilot-scale project through government funding

 

By: Timothy Wiranata

UNI: tw2618

 

Comment on The benefits of waste-to-energy technologies:

“A very interesting technology! However, I am curious on what will be done after the methane is captured. There will still be the liquid waste water right? Will it be used for other applications?”

Dealing With Threatening Seas – What Cities Can Learn From The Netherlands

js5079 – Joshua Strake
Link – NYT
Sustainability Topic: Water

Overview

The Dutch have been dealing with the risks that come with being below sea level for centuries. Now that sea level is rising, more and more cities around the world will find themselves facing the same issues that Dutch cities like Groningen and Rotterdam have been dealing with all along. This Times article gets into what kind of technology Rotterdam implements to prevent damage from flooding – the simple answer is that they embrace it. Summary below.

Summary

  • Rotterdam uses built infrastructure in combination with water-absorbing natural landscape (Polders) to reduce the damage and risk from high seas and flooding.
  • Their most notable built investment is the massive Maeslantkering Flood Gate, which is just outside the city at the mouth of the river, designed to prevent floodwater in an emergency.
  • Public places such as parks, plazas, and garages are all designed to also act as retention pools for flood waters, to contain flooding.
  • Flood awareness and safety are also ingrained into Dutch culture – they have an app that alerts you if you are in a flood risk area, and children are forced to learn how to swim fully clothed in the event of disastrous flooding.
  • Lesson for other cities: walls are not enough. You must integrate water safety and management into your public spaces, your people, and your culture to truly address the risk.

Stakeholders

Coastal City Citizens, Urban Policymakers, Sustainable Infrastructure Construction Firms

Next Steps

Assess what cities could benefit from similar projects
Said cities commission studies and teams to plan appropriate projects
Gain approval and funding to undertake projects

Comment on Bioplastics Post

This is an interesting idea but I wish they went further into cost, quality, scalability, etc. The company website simply says that waste is broken down to become feed-stock for the plastic. What additional resources are required? Chemicals/Energy? Time? Would like to know more about the costs here. All in all a very interesting idea!

Smart Water Sensing Technologies

The World Wildlife Fund states that by 2025, two-thirds of the world’s population may face water shortages and ecosystems around the world will suffer even more.  In addition, an excess of 6.5 billion people are projected to live in cities by 2050, according to recent UN estimates.  The sustainability problem of water scarcity is mounting at a global scale but solutions require highly localized implementation.  We are well beyond mere civil engineering matters at this point and pressures are also growing for cities to get “smart.”  This means that looking to improve water and wastewater management, power generation, and urban demands on rural agricultural production are at the top of the list.  The matter of addressing water scarcity involved many stakeholders – householders, residential and commercial property owners, industrial operations, municipalities, water utilities, regulators, policy makers, lawyers, ecosystems, and farming communities.

This matter of water access is an age old one and has made the big screen more than once (think back to 1974 and the movie Chinatown) but today water is increasingly being managed like a commodity (think the documentary Water & Power: A California Heist) and has become a driver of fear to the point of perception that we’re on the bring of a age of water wars.  To date the value of predictive analytics and maintenance of water based assets has been touted as an area of great hope for these concerns but many of these management approaches and their associated methodologies have sought to conserve water, reduce scheduling of repairs costs, maintenance efforts, and eliminate failures without accounting for many “soft” factors.  Worse, these tactics neglect lower hanging fruit that is readily available.  For example, during a period of about 18 months during the years 2013-2015 the largest provider of water and wastewater services in the United Kingdom, Thames Water, worked with Accenture to try to figure out how to best use sensors, analytics, and real-time data to “help the utility company anticipate equipment failures and respond more quickly to critical situations, such as leaks or adverse weather events.”  A good and necessary start but far from systemic when considering the scale of implementation plans needed for the years 2025 to 2050.

Today water management and smart water sensing technologies exist even for the DIY home owner and this is indeed a great place to start.  It’s low hanging fruit like residential consumers that can lead to increasingly addressing other higher volume end points of water consumption.  Installing Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) is nearly a dead ringer for water utilities so they can better mange for otherwise they’re unable to measure and that’s a death spiral nobody can afford these days.  The growing pressures on infrastructure that urbanization will bring with it are well known and so to get a smart city one must prepare for growth in commensurate ways that are also able to process the worldwide urbanization phenomena.  Smart water sensing technologies and in turn the education of water consumers is a logical place to start for at scale impact.

 

JMB2408 COMMENT TO ANOTHER BLOG POST (Automated Underground Bike Storage):

This concept of storage is pretty amazing in high density environments and of course next to nowhere in the United States will this ever generate enough users to financially justify it but it’s really amazing to think it could be part of a future “smart” city plan. In Boulder, CO there are a lot of bikers and some amazing bike lock options in cage-like structures near the train stations and public transit. A scaled down version of this but one applicable in the United States.